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How to Pray Janaza for Man| Woman| Child (Hanafi Method)

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How to Pray Janaza for Man | Woman | Child – Fiqh Hanafi Method

There are Two fundamentals and Three Sunnahs in the funeral prayer:

The Two fundamentals are: 

(1) To recite (اَللهُ اَكْبَر) four times (2) Qiyam (to stand).

The three Sunan-e-Muakkadah are:

(1) Sana (2) Salat-Alan-Nabi (3) Supplication for the deceased.

Method of Namaz e Janaza Step by Step

The Muqtadi should make the following intention: ‘I make the intention of offering this funeral Salah for Allah and making supplication (Dua) for this dead person, following this Imam.’ Ref: (Fatawa Tatar Khaniya, vol. 2, pp. 153)

Now the Imam and the Muqtadis should raise their hands up to their ears and fold them below the navel as usual whilst saying: Allahu Akbar (اَللهُ اَكْبَر), and then recite Sana:

Then, without raising the hands, say: Allahu Akbar (اَللهُ اَكْبَر) and recite Durud-e-Ibrahim.

Without raising the hands again, say  (اَللهُ اَكْبَر) and now recite the supplication (the Imam should say the Takbirat loudly whilst the Muqtadis should do the same in a low voice. Both the Imam and Muqtadis should recite the remaining invocations in a low voice).

After the supplication, say (اَللهُ اَكْبَر), unfold the hands and perform Salam on both sides. During the Salam, the intention should be made for the deceased person, for angels and for the participants of the Salah, same as in the Salam of other Salahs; the only difference here is the addition of the intention for the deceased person as well.

Ref: (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 829, 835)

Supplication for funeral of adults (Man and Woman)

Dua for a Male Minor

Dua for a Female Minor

To offer funeral Salah whilst standing upon shoes

In case of offering the funeral Salah whilst wearing shoes, the shoes, as well as the part of the earth beneath them, must be pure, while, in case of offering the Salah placing the feet upon the shoes having taken them off, the purity of the sole of the shoes and the ground is not necessary. In reply to a question, Ala Hazrat Maulana Shah Imam Amad Raza Khan, a well known Islamic Scholar says ‘If the place was impure due to urine etc., or those who offered the Salah wearing such shoes whose soles were not pure, their Salah would not be valid. It is, therefore, safer to offer the funeral Salah by taking the shoes off and place the feet upon them so that the Salah would not be affected even if the sole of the shoes or the earth is impure.’

Ref: (Fatawa Razawiyyah, vol. 9, pp. 188)

Funeral Salah in Absentia

Presence of the corpse in front is necessary. Offering funeral Salah in absence of the corpse is not valid. It is Mustaab for the Imam to stand in front of the chest of the corpse.

Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, vol. 3, pp. 123, 134)

Method of offering joint Salah for more than one funeral

Salah of several funerals may be offered jointly. It is optional to either place the corpses parallel such that chest of all remain in front of the Imam or place them in a queue such that the feet of the one corpse are towards the head of the other and so on.

Ref: (Bahar-e-Shari’at, vol. 1, pp. 839; ‘Alamgiri, vol. 1, pp. 165)

How to Perform Tayammum (Male & Female) – Fiqh Hanafi Method

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How to Perform Tayammum (Male & Female) – Fiqh Hanafi Method

Make Niyyaĥ (intention) to perform Tayammum (Niyyah is the name of the intention of heart and pronouncing it verbally is better. For example, make intention in these words: ‘I am performing Tayammum to purify myself from impurity and to make myself eligible for offering Salah’).

Read بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ and, with fingers spread wide open, hit hands on some pure object that is earthen in nature (e.g. stones, limestone, bricks, walls, soil etc.) and drag the hands back and forth on that object. If hands become over-dusty, reduce excessive dust by jerking hands. Wipe entire face with hands such that no part of the face is left unwiped; Tayammum will not be valid if even a part equivalent to a hair is left unwiped.

Again hit hands on that object like before and wipe both arms from the fingertips up to (and including) the elbows. A better way to do this is to first wipe right hand with inner side of four fingers of the left hand, leaving the left thumb, starting from exterior side of fingertips of the right hand and dragging on exterior side up to the right elbow.

Then, wipe with palm of left hand from interior side of right elbow up to the right wrist dragging left palm on interior side. Finally, use the inside of the left thumb to wipe the back of the right thumb. The left arm should be wiped in the same manner using right hand.  Ref: (Al-Fatawa Tatar Khaniyyah, pp. 227, vol. 1)

And if wiping is done with palm and fingers jointly, Tayammum will still be valid whether traversing is done from fingers towards elbow or vice versa. But this would be contrary to Sunnaĥ. Tayammum does not require wiping of head and feet. (Well known books of Ḥanafī jurisprudence)

Fard of Tayammum

There are three Faraḍ in Tayammum:

  1. Intention
  2. Wiping hands on the entire face
  3. Wiping both arms including the elbows

Ref: (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 353, vol. 1, part 2)

3 Makrooh / Forbidden Prayer Times – Fiqh Hanafi

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3 Makrooh / Forbidden Prayer Times – According to Fiqh Hanafi

Usually, the time-tables (of Salah) are displayed in Masajid (Mosques). The timings of Salah can easily be ascertained with the help of the time-tables compiled by reliable Tawqit Dan (Experts in Salah/Fasting timings) and certified by Ahl-e-Sunnah scholars.

These are Three Forbidden Prayer Times:

  1. From the time of sunrise up to the next 20 minutes.
  2. From 20 minutes before sunset to the time of sunset.
  3. From Nisf-un-Nahar to the time when the sun begins to decline. No Salah, whether it is Fard, Wajib, Nafl or Qada (Missed Salah) is permissible during these three times.

These also Forbidden Times to read Quran?

The Answer is NO. You can read Quran any time.

6 Pre-Conditions of Salah for Male & Female (Hanafi Method)

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These are 6 Pre-Conditions of Salah:

  1. Taharat (Purity)
  2. Sitr-e-Awrat (Veiling)
  3. Istiqbal-e-Qibla (Facing towards the Qiblah during Salah)
  4. Waqt (Timings)
  5. Niyyat (Intention)
  6. Takbir-e-Tahrimah  (اَللهُ اَكْبَر)

Now here are the details one by one, Read it carefully:

1. Taharat (Purity)

The body, clothes and place of Salah must be pure from all types of impurities. Ref: (Maraqil Falah ma’ Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P207)

2. Sitr-e-Awrat (Veiling)

  1. Men’s body from navel to the knees (including knees) must be covered whereas women’s whole body must be covered except the following five parts: Face, both palms, soles of both feet. However, according to a Mufta bihi Qawl (valid verdict), the Salah of a woman will be valid even if her both hands, up to the wrist, and feet, up to the ankle, are completely uncovered. Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar ma’ Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P93)
  2. If someone wears such thin clothing that exposes such a part of the body which is Fard to be concealed in Salah, or that exposes the color of skin (of that part), the Salah will not be valid. Ref: (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, V1, P58)
  3. Nowadays, the trend of wearing thin clothing is growing. Wearing such thin clothes that expose any part of thigh or Sitr is Haram even when not offering Salah.  Ref: (Bahar-e-Shari’at, Part 3, P42, Madina-tul-Murshid Bareilly Sharif)
  4. Wearing such thick skin-tight clothes that do not expose the color of the body but reveal the shape of Sitr will not invalidate the Salah but it is not permissible for other people to look at that part of the body.
    Ref: (Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P103)
    Coming in front of others wearing such skin-tight clothes is prohibited and it is more strictly forbidden for women.  Ref: (Bahar-e-Shari’at, Part 3, P42, Madina-tul-Murshid, Bareilly Sharif)
  5. Some women wear such thin shawl made of muslin etc. that reveals the blackness of their hair during Salah or wear such dress through which the color of body-parts is visible; the Salah offered wearing such a dress will not be valid.

3. Istiqbal-e-Qibla

Istiqbal-e-Qiblah means facing towards the Qiblah during Salah.

  1. If the Musalli (the one offering Salah) turns his chest deliberately from Qiblah without a valid reason, his Salah will become invalid even if he turns back to Qiblah instantly. However, if his chest turns unintentionally and he turns back to Qiblah within the amount of time in which ‘سبحان الله‘  can be uttered thrice, his Salah will not be invalid. Ref: (Al-Bahr-ur-Ra-aiq, V1, P497)
  2. If only face turned from Qiblah, it is Wajib to turn the face back towards Qiblah instantly. Although the Salah
    will not become invalid in this case, it is Makruh-e-Tahrimi to do so without a valid reason.
    Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P222, Karachi)
  3. If someone is present at such a place where there is neither any means to know the direction of Qiblah nor
    any such Muslim whom he could ask the direction, so, in this case, he has to do Taharri, i.e. ponder (as to where the direction of Qiblah may be). He should turn towards the direction in which his heart guides him. This is the direction of Qiblah for him. Ref: (Al-Hidayah ma’ Fath-ul-Qadir, V1, P236)
  4. If someone offered Salah doing Taharri and got to know later on that the direction in which he offered Salah was not the correct direction of Qiblah, his Salah will still be valid, it does not need to be repeated.
    Ref: (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, V1, P64)
  5. If someone is offering Salah doing Taharri, another person sees him and starts offering Salah facing the same direction without doing Taharri, his Salah will not be valid; he will have to do his own Taharri.
    Ref: (Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P143)

4. Waqt (Timings)

It is necessary to offer Salah within its stipulated time. For example, today’s ‘Asr Salah is to be offered, it is necessary that the time for Asr has begun. Asr Salah will not be valid if it is offered before the beginning of its time.

Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, 224)

To get to know about 3 Forbidden Prayer Times here.

5. Niyyat (Intention)

Niyyat means firm intention in the heart. Ref: (Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P215 Karachi)

6. Takbir-e-Tahrimah

Starting Salah by uttering (اَللهُ اَكْبَر) is compulsory. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P68)

7 Fard of Salah for Male & Female (Hanafi Method)

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7 Fard of Salah for Male & Female (Hanafi Method)

  1. Takbir-e-Tahrimah
  2. Qiyam
  3. Qirat
  4. Ruku
  5. Sujud
  6. Qa’dah-e-Akhirah
  7. Khuruj-e-Bisun’ihi.

Ref: (Ghunyatul-Mustamli, P253-286)

1. Takbir-e-Tahrimah

In fact, Takbir-e-Tahrimah (also called Takbir-e-Aula) is one of the pre-conditions for Salah but it has also been included in the Faraid because it is closely attached to the acts of Salah.

  1. If the Muqtadi says the word ‘Allah’ of Takbir-e-Tahrimah with the Imam but utters the word ‘Akbar’ before the Imam utters the same word, his Salah will not be valid. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P68)
  2. If the Muqtadi finds the Imam in Ruku’ and bends instantly for Ruku’ uttering the Takbir, i.e. he finishes the Takbir after he had already bent down to such an extent that his hands would touch his knees if he stretched them, his Salah will not be valid. Ref: (KhulaGa-tul-Fatawa, V1, P83) (What he should do on such an occasion is to utter the Takbir-e-Tahrimah whilst standing erect and then do Ruku uttering اَللهُ اَكْبَر.
    If he manages to join the Imam in Ruku even for a moment, the Rakat will be counted, but if the Imam stands up before he joins the Imam in Ruku, the Rakat will not be counted.)
  3. If someone is unable to pronounce Takbir because of dumbness or loss of the faculty of speaking due to any other reason, he does not have to utter it; just making intention in heart is sufficient for him.
    Ref: (Tabyin-ul-Haqa-aiq, V1, P109)
  4. If the word اَلله (Allah) is mispronounced as آلله (Áallah) or the word اَكْبَرْ (Akbar) as آكْبَرْ (Áakbar) or اَكْبَارْ (Akbaar), the Salah will be invalid. If anyone deliberately utters any of these words despite understanding their Fasid (wrong) meaning, he will become a Kafir (disbeliever). Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P177).
  5. If someone performs first Rakat’s Ruku with the Imam, he will gain the Sawab of Takbir-e-Aula.
    Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P69)

2. Qiyam

  1. The least level of Qiyam is that if the hands are stretched, they should not reach knees whereas complete Qiyam is to stand erect. Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P163)
  2. The duration of Qiyam and that of Qirat is the same; standing in Qiyam is Fard, Wajib or Sunnah for as long as Fard Qirat, Wajib Qirat or Sunnah Qirat requires respectively.
  3. Qiyam is Fard for Fard, Witr, Eidain and the Sunan of Fajr Salah. If anyone offered any of these Salah sitting without a valid reason, Salah would not be valid.
  4. Feeling just slight pain in standing is not a valid excuse, instead, a person can be exempted from Qiyam when
    he/she is unable to stand or perform Sajdah, or when his wound bleeds due to standing or performing Sajdah or a drop of urine is released, or his quarter Sitr is exposed, or he is quite unable to do Qirat. Similarly, if a person is able enough to stand, but it will result in the intensity or prolongation of his illness or unbearable pain, he can offer Salah sitting.
  5. If it is possible to stand for Qiyam leaning on a staff (crutches) or wall, or by the help of a servant, it is Fard to do so. Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P258)
  6. If it is possible to utter just Takbir-e-Tahrimah standing, it is Fard to utter اَللهُ اَكْبَر whilst standing and then (if it
    isn’t possible to remain standing anymore), he may sit down. Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P259)
  7. Some Masajid provide chairs on which some old people sit and offer Salah despite coming to the Masjid on foot, they even talk with others standing after the Salah; if such people offer Salah sitting without Shara’i permission, their Salah will not be valid.
  8. It is permissible to offer Nafl (alah sitting despite having the strength to stand; however, it is better to offer it standing.

3. Qirat (Recitation of the Holy Quran)

  1. Qirat means ‘pronouncing each and every letter from its correct place of origin so that each letter is quite distinct from every other letter. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P69)
  2. Even when reciting in low volume, it is necessary for the reciter to hear his voice of recitation.
    Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P271)
  3. If the letters are pronounced correctly, but not loud enough for the reciter to hear himself (and there is no obstruction such as noise or the problem of hard of hearing either), the Salah will not be valid in this case.
    Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P69)
  4. Although it is necessary for the reciter to listen to the voice of recitation himself, the sound should not reach others in Sirri Salah (the Salah in which recitation is done in low volume). Similarly, listening to the voice of recitation while reciting Tasbihat etc. is also necessary.
  5. To recite at least one Ayah in the first two Rak’at of a Fard Salah, every Rakat of Witr, Sunan and Nawafil Salah is Fard for the Imam as well as the Munfarid. Ref: (Maraqil falah ma’ Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P226)

4. Ruku

The least level of Ruku’ is to bend forward to such an extent that if hands are stretched, they should reach the knees Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P166) while complete Ruku is to keep the back horizontally straight.

Ref: (Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P229)

The beloved Rasul of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, “Allah does not see (mercifully) at such a Salah of the person in which he does not straighten his back during Ruku’ and Sujud.”

Ref: (Musnad-e-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, V3, P617, Hadis 10803, Dar-ul-Fikr, Beirut)

5. Sujud

  1. The beloved Rasul of Allah (Peace be upon him) said “I have been commanded to perform Sajdah on seven bones: (i) the face, (ii & iii) both hands, (iv & v) both knees and (vi & vii) finger-set of both feet; I have (also) been commanded not to fold my clothes and hair. Ref: (Sahih Muslim, V1, P193)
  2. Two Sujud are Fard in each Rakat. Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul- Muhtar, V2, P167)
  3. It is necessary that the forehead properly rests on the ground. Resting of forehead means hardness of the ground should be felt. If someone performed Sajdah in such a way that his forehead did not properly rest on the ground, Sajdah would not be valid. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P70)
  4. In case of performing Sajdah on something soft such as grass, wool or a carpet, if the forehead firmly rests onto it, i.e. it is pressed so hard that it cannot be pressed anymore, Sajdah will be valid, otherwise, not.
    Ref: (Tabyin-ul-Haqaaiq, V1, P117)
  5. These days, the trend of using carpets in Masajid has developed (in some Masajid foam is also spread underneath the carpets). While performing Sajdah on a carpet, make it sure that the forehead firmly rests, otherwise Salah will not be valid. If the nasal bone did not rest on the ground properly, the Salah will be Makruh-e-Tahrimi and it would be Wajib to repeat such a Salah.
    Ref: (Mulakhas az Bahar-e-Shariat, Part 3, P71)
  6. As the forehead does not properly rest on a spring mattress, Salah will not be valid on it. (ibid)

7. Khuruj-e-Bisun’ihi

After the Qa’dah-e-Akhirah, deliberately saying Salam, talking or any other such act that finishes the Salah. However, if any other deliberate act except Salam was found, repeating such a Salah will be Wajib, and if any such act was found without intention, the Salah will become invalid.

Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P286)

30 Major Wajib of Namaz (Regular Prayer and Eid)

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30 Major Wajib of Namaz for Male and Female (Hanafi Method)

  1. Uttering ‘اَللهُ اَكْبَر ’ for Takbir-e-Tahrimah.
  2.  Reciting Sura-e-Fatiha, a Surah, or one such Quranic Ayah that is equivalent to three small ones or three small Ayahs in every Rak’at of every (Salah except the last two Rak’at of Fard Salah.
  3.  Reciting Sura-e-Fatiha before the Surah.
  4.  Not reciting anything except ‘آمين’ and ‘ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ ’ between Alhamd and the Surah.
  5. Doing Ruku’ immediately after Qirat.
  6. Doing the second Sajdah after the first one (in sequence).
  7. Maintaining Ta’dil-e-Arkan, i.e. staying in Ruku’, Sujud, Qawmah and Jalsah for the amount of time in which ‘سُبْحانَ اللَّهِ’ can be uttered at least once.
  8. Qawmah, i.e. standing erect after Ruku’ (some people do not straighten their back after Ruku’, it is the missing of a Wajib).
  9. Jalsah, i.e. sitting upright between two Sujud (some people do the second Sajdah before they properly sit upright after the first one missing a Wajib. No matter how extreme hurry is, it is mandatory to sit straight or else the Salah will become Makruh-e-Tahrimi and repeating such a Salah will be Wajib).
  10. The first Qa’dah is Wajib even in a Nafl Salah (In fact, every Qa’dah in two Rakats Nafl Salah is the ‘last Qa’dah’ and is, therefore, Fard; if someone did not do Qa’dah and stood up forgetfully and if he has not yet done Sajdah of the third Rakat, he must return and do Sajda-e-Sahw).
    Ref: (Bahar-e-Shari’at, Part 4, P52, Madina-tul-Murshid, Bareilly Sharif)
    If someone has done the Sajdah of the 3rd Rakat of Nafl Salah, now he has to complete the fourth Rakat and do Sajda-e-Sahw. Sajda-e-Sahw became Wajib because although Qa’dah is Fard after every two Rak’at of Nafl Salah, the first Qa’dah turned into Wajib from Fard because of performing the Sajdah of the third or fifth Rak’at and so on.
    Ref: (Mulakhkhasan Tahtavi, P466)
  11. Not reciting anything after Tashahhud in the first Qa’dah of Fard, Witr or Sunnah-e Muakkadah Salah.
  12. Reciting complete Tashahhud in both Qa’dah. If even one word is missed, Wajib will be missed and Sajda-e-Sahw will be Wajib.
  13. If someone forgetfully recites اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّد or اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى سَيِّدِنَ after Tashahhud in the first Qa’dah of Fard, Witr, and Sunnat-e-Muakkadah, Sajda-e-Sahw will become Wajib;
    If someone says it deliberately, repeating the Salah will be Wajib.
    Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P269)
  14. Saying the word ‘ اَلسَّلامُ ’ when turning face to the right and left side is Wajib each time; saying the word ‘ عَلَيْكُمْ ’ is not a Wajib, it’s a Sunnah.
  15. Uttering the Takbir of Qunut in Witr.
  16. Reciting Du’a-e-Qunut in Witr.
  17. The six Takbirat of both Eid Salah.
  18. The six Takbirat of both Eid Salah and uttering the word ‘اَللهُ اَكْبَر ‘ for it.
  19. Imam’s doing Qira-at in such a loud voice (that at least three persons could hear) in Jahri Salah such as the first two Rak’ats of Maghrib and ‘Isha and all the Rakats of Fajr, Jumu’ah, Eidain, Tarawih and the Witr of Ramadan.
  20. Doing Qira-at with low volume in the “Sirri Salah” such as Zuhr and Asr.
  21. Performing every Fard and Wajib in its prescribed order.
  22. Doing Ruku’ only once in each Rakat.
  23. Doing Sajdah only twice in each Rakat.
  24. Not doing Qa’dah before the second Rakat.
  25. Not doing Qa’dah in the third Rak’at of a four Rakats Salah.
  26. Doing the Sajdah of Tilawat in case of reciting an Ayah of Sajdah.
  27. Doing Sajda-e-Sahw if it has become Wajib.
  28. Avoiding the pause for the amount of time in which Tasbih (i.e. سُبْحانَ اللَّهِ) can be uttered three times in
    between two Farad, two Wajibat or a Fard and a Wajib.
  29. Muqtadi’s (who performing Salah with Imam) remaining silent when the Imam is doing Qirat whether aloud or quietly.
  30. Following the Imam in all Wajibat (Wajibs) except the Qirat.

Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P181 – Alamgiri, V1, P71)

How to Pray Namaz (Male & Female) Hanafi Method

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Dear Islamic Sisters, Please Read this Article carefully, we’ll discuss A Few Differences in the Salah of Islamic Sisters at the end of this Article.

Stand erect facing the Qiblah in the state of Wudu with a distance of four fingers between feet. Now raise both hands

making thumbs touch the ear-lobes. Fingers should neither be too close together nor too wide apart; instead, they should remain in a normal position, palms facing the Qiblah. Eyesight should be focused at the place of Sajdah. Now make a firm intention (in your heart) of the (Salah that you are about to offer. To say it verbally is better (for example, “I intend to offer four Rak’at for today’s Fard Zuhar (Salah.” If you are in a Jama’at, add the words “following this Imam”). Now, utter Takbir-e-Tahrimah (اَللهُ اَكْبَر) lowering your hands and fold them below navel with right palm on the back of left wrist joint, three middle fingers straight on the back of left forearm and thumb and small finger making a loop on either side of the wrist. Now recite Sana like this:

Then recite the Ta’aw-wuz:

Then recite the Tasmiyah:

Then recite the whole of Surah Fatiha:

After you finish Surah Fatiha, utter أمين (Amin) in low volume and then recite either three short Ayahs or one long Ayah that is equivalent to three short Ayahs or any Surah such as Surah Ikhlas).

Now bow down for Ruku’ uttering اَللهُ اَكْبَر. Hold knees firmly with both palms and keep fingers spread out. The back should be straight and head should also be in the straightness of the back (not lower or higher than the back); in Ruku’, focus eyesight at feet. Recite سُبْحانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيْمِ at least three times in

Ruku’. Then utter the Tasmi سَمِعَ اللّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَه and stand erect; the standing after Ruku’ is called Qawmah. If you are a Munfarid (alone) then utter اَللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَاوَلَكَ الْحَمْد.

Then, go down for Sajdah uttering اَللهُ اَكْبَر placing your knees first on the ground, then hands and then head (nose first and then the forehead) in between your hands. Make it sure that your nasal bone (not just the tip of your nose) and your forehead properly rest on the ground; in Sajdah, focus eyesight at nose; keep arms separated from sides, belly from thighs and thighs from shins (but if you are in a Jama’at then keep arms close to sides).

The tips of all ten toes should be towards Qiblah with their soles flattened with the ground. Your palms should be flat on the ground with fingers facing Qiblah, but do not keep the forearms touching the ground.

Now recite سُبْحانَ رَبِّيَ الْاَعْلَى at least three times; then lift your head (forehead first then nose), then hands and sit up straight; keep your right foot upright with its toes facing Qiblah; lay your left foot flat and sit on it; place your palms on your thighs close to your knees with your fingers facing Qiblah and their tips by the knees.

Sitting in between two Sujud is called Jalsah. One must stay in this position for at least the amount of time in which “Subhan ALLAH” can once be uttered.

Now, perform the second Sajdah uttering اَللهُ اَكْبَر in the same way as the first one.

Now, raise the head first; then stand up with the support of your toes placing your hands on your knees. Do not lean hands unnecessarily on the ground while standing up. You have now completed one Rakat.

In the second Rak’at, start with بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ and then recite Sura-e-Fatiah and another Surah, then do the Ruku’ and Sujud as you did in the first Rakat.

After completing the second Sajdah (of the second Rak’at) sit up straight with your right foot upright and your left foot flat.

To sit after the second Sajdah of the second Rak’at is called Qa’dah.

Recite Tashahhud in Qadah:

When you are about to utter the word لآ in Tashahhud, form a circle with the middle finger and thumb of your right hand and put the tips of your ring-finger and the pinkie at palm; as soon as you begin to utter the word ” لآ ” (immediately after “ اَشْهَدُاَلْ ”), raise your index finger without waving it side to side. When you reach ” اِلَّا ” put it down and straighten your all fingers out instantly. If you are offering more than two Rakat, stand up erect uttering اَللهُ اَكْبَر.

If it is Fard (Salah, recite only بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ and Sura-e-Fatiha in the third and fourth Rakat, an additional Surah is not needed. The rest of the acts must be performed in the same way as before.

However, if it is a Sunnah Salah or Nafl Salah, then Surah must be added after Surah Fatiha in the third and fourth Rakat (You must remember that if you are offering the (Salah following an Imam, you cannot recite anything in the Qiyam of any Rakat, you must stand quietly). Once you have offered all four Rakat, sit in Qadahe- Akhirah, and then recite Tashahhud and the Durud-e-Ibrahim (Peace be upon Him).

Then recite any Dua-e-Masura e.g.

Then, to finish the (Salah, first turn face towards right shoulder saying اَلسَّلامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّه and then towards left shoulder saying the same words. Now your Salah has completed.

Ref: (Maraqil falah ma’ Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P278, Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P261, Karachi).

A Few Differences in the Salah of Islamic Sisters

The afore-mentioned method of (Salah is for an Imam or a man offering individually. There are some differences between the (Salah of Islamic sisters and that of Islamic brothers. At the time of Takbir-e-Tahrimah, Islamic sisters should raise their hands up to their shoulders; their hands should remain covered in their shawl.

Ref:(Al-Hidayah ma’ Fath-ul-Qadir, V1, P246)

In Qiyam, Islamic sisters should place their left palm on chest just below their breast and put the right palm on the back of the left palm. Islamic sisters should bow slightly in Ruku’ i.e. to the extent of placing their hands on their knees. They should neither apply weight to their knees nor hold them; their fingers should be close together and feet should be slightly bent i.e. not completely straight, like men. Islamic sisters should perform Sajdah keeping their body parts close together, i.e. arms touching sides, belly touching thighs, thighs touching shins and shins touching the ground. In Sajdah and Qa’dah, they should draw their feet out towards the right side.

In Qa’dah, they should sit on their left buttock. They should place their right and left hands on the middle of their right and left thighs respectively. The rest method is like that of men.

Ref:(Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P259, ‘Alamgiri, V1, P74)

How To Perform Ghusl (Ritual Bath)

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It is Mustahab to sit on an elevated place facing Qiblah. To make intention for Wudu is Sunnah. Intention means to intend by heart. Verbal intention is preferable provided the same is present in the heart. Therefore, make intention as: “I am performing Wudu in order to fulfill the command of Allah and to attain purity. ” Recite  بِسْمِ اللهِ <as it is also a Sunnah. Say بـِسْمِ اللّــهِ وَالْحَمْدلِلّه as angels will continue writing good deeds as long as one is in the state of Wudu.

Step 1: Wash both hands up to the wrists three times each and afterwards do Khilal (to intermix fingers of both hands to dampen the gaps) of the fingers (with the tap closed).

Now use Miswak three times in right & left, upper & lower teeth and after each cycle, rinse the Miswak. (If available).

Step 2: Now rinse your mouth three times with handfuls of water (closing the tap each time) using right hand making sure that water reaches all parts of the mouth and gargle as well if you are not in fasting.

Step 3:  Now sniff water three times in nose up to soft flesh using three handfuls (now half handful is sufficient) of right hand (closing the tap each time) and if not in fasting, snuffle water up to the inside end of the nose. Now clean the nose by left hand (keeping the tap turned off) and insert small finger inside holes of the nose.

Step 4: Wash the whole face three times such that water must flow on every part from the top of the forehead (the point where the hair naturally begins to grow) to the bottom of the chin and from one earlobe to the other. If one has beard and he is not in the state of Ihram (Special state for Haj / ‘Umrah) then do Khilal (with the tap turned off) of beard by inserting the fingers into the beard from the neck and bringing them out towards the front.

Step 5: Now wash the right arm from the tips of the fingers up to (and including) the elbow three times and then wash the left arm in the same manner. To wash up to half of the upper arm is Mustahab. Most people take a small amount of water in their hand and pour it over their arm towards the elbow three times. But in this method, there is chance that water would not flow over the edges of wrist and arm. Therefore, wash arms as mentioned. Now there

is no need to pour a handful of water over the arms. In fact, doing this (without a proper justification) is a waste of water.

Step 6: Now (with the tap closed) perform moistening of the head.This should be done by joining the tips of the three fingers, other than the index fingers and thumbs, of both hands and placing them on the top of forehead. Move back these fingers from forehead to the back of the neck without letting the palms touch the head. Each palm should then be placed on either side of the head and pulled across the sides back towards the forehead. During this, the index fingers and thumbs should not touch the head at all.

Now use the index fingers to wipe the insides of the ears, the thumbs for the back of ears and the small fingers should be inserted inside the holes of ears. Now moisten the back of the neck using the back of fingers of both hands. Some people, in addition, wipe the front of the neck, the forearms and wrists; this is not Sunnah. Make a habit of turning the tap off before wiping the head. To waste water by leaving the tap open completely or partially is a sin.

Step 7: Now wash both feet three times, first the right and then the left, beginning from the toes up to the top of the ankles. It is Mustahab to wash up to halfway up the shin. To do Khilal between the fingers of both feet is Sunnah. The tap should be kept turned off during Khilal. Its Mustahab method is to start doing Khilal from little toe of the right foot to its big toe using the small finger of the left hand, and then, doing Khilal from the big toe of the left foot to its little toe using the same small finger of the left hand.

How To Perform Ghusl (Ritual Bath)

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Method of Ghusl (Hanafi)

Make the following intention in the heart without uttering any word with the tongue: “I am going to take bath for acquiring purity.”

First, wash both hands up to wrist three times.

Wash excretory organs whether the impurity is present over there or not.

Now, if there is impurity on any part of body, remove it.

Perform Wudu as done for Salah but do not wash feet. In case of performing Ghusl on some stool, wash feet as well. Now moisten the body with wet hand, especially in winter season (during this, soap may be applied). Now pour water three times over right shoulder, three times on left shoulder, on head and then three times on the whole body. Now shift apart from place of Ghusl and wash feet if not washed during Wudu.

Do not face towards Qiblah during Ghusl. During bath, rub all the body by hands. Take bath at such a place where nobody could see you. If such place is not available, a man should cover his Sitr [from navel upto (including) knees] with a thick cloth. If the thick cloth is not available, two or more thin cloths can be wrapped on Sitr as thin cloth will stick with the body and colour of thighs / knees may be exposed (Allah forbid).

A woman has to take more cautions. Neither talk during Ghusl nor recite any invocation. After bath, body may be wiped with a towel etc.

Wear cloths immediately after the completion of Ghusl.

Three Obligatory (Fard) Acts in Ghusl

1. Rinsing the mouth

2. Sniffing water inside the nose

3. Ablution of the whole apparent body.

Ref: (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, Vol-1, P-13)

1. Rinsing the Mouth

Taking a little water into mouth and then spitting it out quickly is not sufficient. It is essential to pass water in mouth over every part, every cavity from lips to the end of throat.

Ref: (Khulasa-tul-Fatawa Vol-1, P-21)

Water must reach the cavities behind the back teeth, gaps and roots of teeth, all sides of the tongue and the brim of throat.

Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar ma’ Rad-dul-Muhtar, Vol-1, P-254)

If you do not have fast, you should gargle as well (it is Sunnah to do so). If bits of betel nuts or fibers of meat are stuck in the teeth, they must be removed. If there is a fear of harm in case of removing them, removal is exempted.

Ref: (Fatawa-e-Razaviyyah, Vol-1, P-441, Raza foundation Lahore)

Prior to performing Ghusl, the fibres of meat etc. were stuck in the teeth but the one bathing did not feel them and,

therefore, offered Salah having performed Ghusl without removing them; later, he came to know that fibres of meat etc. were stuck in the teeth, it is now Obligatory (Fard) for him to remove them and pass water over there. The Salah offered is valid.

Ref: (Derived from Fatawa-e-Razaviyyah, Vol-1, P-206)

If a loose tooth has been fixed with some compound or fastened with wire and water could not reach below compound or wire, it is exempted.

Ref: (Fatawa-e-Razaviyyah, Vol-2, P-453)

The thorough rinsing of mouth is Obligatory (Fard) once in Ghusl and such thorough rinsing three times in Wudu is Sunnah.

 2. Sniffing Water into the Nose

Quickly splashing a bit of water onto the tip of one’s nose is not sufficient; it is essential to wash nose up to the end of soft bone i.e. up to the start of hard bone.

Ref: (Khula8a-tul-Fatawa, Vol-1, P21)

This can only be done by sniffing water upwards but remember, if even a part equal to a hair tip is left unwashed, Ghusl will be invalid. If dried mucus has accumulated inside the nose, it is Obligatory (Fard) to remove it.

Ref: (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, Vol-1, P-13)

It is Obligatory (Fard) to wash the nasal hairs.

Ref: (Bahar-e-Shari’at, Part 2, P-34, Madina-tul-Murshid, Bareilly)

3. Ablution of the whole apparent Body

It is obligatory to pass water on each and every part and down (soft fine hair) of apparent body from hairs of the head up to soles of the feet. There are some such body-organs which may well remain unwashed, if special care is not taken, and Ghusl will not be valid on this account either.

Ref: (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, V1, P14)

Twenty Cautions for both Man and Woman during Ghusl

  1. If a man’s hair is braided, it is Far to wash these hair
    from roots up to the tips having unbraided them. Women
    only need to wash the roots, it is not essential for them to
    undo their braids. However, if the hair is braided so tightly that water cannot reach the roots, it is essential to undo braids.
    Ref: (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, Vol-1, P-13)
  2. If the hole of the pierced nose or ears is not closed, it is
    obligatory to pass water through the hole. During Wuu,
    flowing water through the hole of the nose only is needed
    but during Ghusl it must flow through the holes of both
    the nose and ears.
  3. Every single hair of the eyebrows, moustache and beard must be washed from root to tip and the skin beneath them must also be washed.
  4. Wash all parts of the ear and the mouth of the ear canal.
  5. The hair behind the ears will have to be lifted in order to
    wash the back of the ears.
  6. The joint between the chin and the throat will not be washed unless you lift your head upwards.
  7. The arms will have to be lifted properly in order to wash the armpits.
  8. Wash all sides of the arms.
  9. Wash every part of the entire back.
  10. Lift the folds of the belly in order to wash it properly.
  11. Pour water into your navel. If you suspect that the navel has not been washed properly, then insert a finger inside it and wash.
  12. Wash every down of the body from root to tip.
  13. Wash the fold between the thigh and the area beneath the navel.
  14. If you are performing Ghusl in a sitting position, you must remember to wash the fold between thigh and shin.
  15. Wash the part where both buttocks join, especially when performing Ghusl in a standing position.
  16. Pass water on all sides of the thighs.
  17. Pass water on all sides of the shins.
  18. Pass water on lower side of the penis and testicles up to the end.
  19. Pass water on surface beneath the testicles upto the end.
  20. An uncircumcised man should lift, if possible, the foreskin and wash penis and make water enter the additional skin.

Ref: (Derived from Bahar-e-Shariat, part-2, P-34)

Six Cautions for Women during Ghusl

  1. Lift up the sagging breasts and pass water beneath.
  2. Wash the line where the belly and breasts meet.
  3. Wash all external parts of the vagina (above and below every fold of skin).
  4. It is Mustahab but not Obligatory (Fard) to wash internals of vagina by inserting finger.
  5. If a woman is bathing at the termination of her menses or post-natal bleeding, it is Mustaab to clean traces of blood from within the vagina using some piece of cloth.
  6. It is Obligatory (Fard) to remove nail polish; otherwise, Ghusl will be invalid. However, there is no harm in henna colour.