7 Fard of Salah for Male & Female (Hanafi Method)
Ref: (Ghunyatul-Mustamli, P253-286)
In fact, Takbir-e-Tahrimah (also called Takbir-e-Aula) is one of the pre-conditions for Salah but it has also been included in the Faraid because it is closely attached to the acts of Salah.
- If the Muqtadi says the word ‘Allah’ of Takbir-e-Tahrimah with the Imam but utters the word ‘Akbar’ before the Imam utters the same word, his Salah will not be valid. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P68)
- If the Muqtadi finds the Imam in Ruku’ and bends instantly for Ruku’ uttering the Takbir, i.e. he finishes the Takbir after he had already bent down to such an extent that his hands would touch his knees if he stretched them, his Salah will not be valid. Ref: (KhulaGa-tul-Fatawa, V1, P83) (What he should do on such an occasion is to utter the Takbir-e-Tahrimah whilst standing erect and then do Ruku uttering اَللهُ اَكْبَر.
If he manages to join the Imam in Ruku even for a moment, the Rakat will be counted, but if the Imam stands up before he joins the Imam in Ruku, the Rakat will not be counted.)
- If someone is unable to pronounce Takbir because of dumbness or loss of the faculty of speaking due to any other reason, he does not have to utter it; just making intention in heart is sufficient for him.
Ref: (Tabyin-ul-Haqa-aiq, V1, P109)
- If the word اَلله (Allah) is mispronounced as آلله (Áallah) or the word اَكْبَرْ (Akbar) as آكْبَرْ (Áakbar) or اَكْبَارْ (Akbaar), the Salah will be invalid. If anyone deliberately utters any of these words despite understanding their Fasid (wrong) meaning, he will become a Kafir (disbeliever). Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P177).
- If someone performs first Rakat’s Ruku with the Imam, he will gain the Sawab of Takbir-e-Aula.
Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P69)
- The least level of Qiyam is that if the hands are stretched, they should not reach knees whereas complete Qiyam is to stand erect. Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P163)
- The duration of Qiyam and that of Qirat is the same; standing in Qiyam is Fard, Wajib or Sunnah for as long as Fard Qirat, Wajib Qirat or Sunnah Qirat requires respectively.
- Qiyam is Fard for Fard, Witr, Eidain and the Sunan of Fajr Salah. If anyone offered any of these Salah sitting without a valid reason, Salah would not be valid.
- Feeling just slight pain in standing is not a valid excuse, instead, a person can be exempted from Qiyam when
he/she is unable to stand or perform Sajdah, or when his wound bleeds due to standing or performing Sajdah or a drop of urine is released, or his quarter Sitr is exposed, or he is quite unable to do Qirat. Similarly, if a person is able enough to stand, but it will result in the intensity or prolongation of his illness or unbearable pain, he can offer Salah sitting.
- If it is possible to stand for Qiyam leaning on a staff (crutches) or wall, or by the help of a servant, it is Fard to do so. Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P258)
- If it is possible to utter just Takbir-e-Tahrimah standing, it is Fard to utter اَللهُ اَكْبَر whilst standing and then (if it
isn’t possible to remain standing anymore), he may sit down. Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P259)
- Some Masajid provide chairs on which some old people sit and offer Salah despite coming to the Masjid on foot, they even talk with others standing after the Salah; if such people offer Salah sitting without Shara’i permission, their Salah will not be valid.
- It is permissible to offer Nafl (alah sitting despite having the strength to stand; however, it is better to offer it standing.
3. Qirat (Recitation of the Holy Quran)
- Qirat means ‘pronouncing each and every letter from its correct place of origin so that each letter is quite distinct from every other letter. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P69)
- Even when reciting in low volume, it is necessary for the reciter to hear his voice of recitation.
Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P271)
- If the letters are pronounced correctly, but not loud enough for the reciter to hear himself (and there is no obstruction such as noise or the problem of hard of hearing either), the Salah will not be valid in this case.
Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P69)
- Although it is necessary for the reciter to listen to the voice of recitation himself, the sound should not reach others in Sirri Salah (the Salah in which recitation is done in low volume). Similarly, listening to the voice of recitation while reciting Tasbihat etc. is also necessary.
- To recite at least one Ayah in the first two Rak’at of a Fard Salah, every Rakat of Witr, Sunan and Nawafil Salah is Fard for the Imam as well as the Munfarid. Ref: (Maraqil falah ma’ Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P226)
The least level of Ruku’ is to bend forward to such an extent that if hands are stretched, they should reach the knees Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, V2, P166) while complete Ruku is to keep the back horizontally straight.
Ref: (Hashiya-tut-Tahtawi, P229)
The beloved Rasul of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, “Allah does not see (mercifully) at such a Salah of the person in which he does not straighten his back during Ruku’ and Sujud.”
Ref: (Musnad-e-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, V3, P617, Hadis 10803, Dar-ul-Fikr, Beirut)
- The beloved Rasul of Allah (Peace be upon him) said “I have been commanded to perform Sajdah on seven bones: (i) the face, (ii & iii) both hands, (iv & v) both knees and (vi & vii) finger-set of both feet; I have (also) been commanded not to fold my clothes and hair. Ref: (Sahih Muslim, V1, P193)
- Two Sujud are Fard in each Rakat. Ref: (Durr-e-Mukhtar, Rad-dul- Muhtar, V2, P167)
- It is necessary that the forehead properly rests on the ground. Resting of forehead means hardness of the ground should be felt. If someone performed Sajdah in such a way that his forehead did not properly rest on the ground, Sajdah would not be valid. Ref: (Alamgiri, V1, P70)
- In case of performing Sajdah on something soft such as grass, wool or a carpet, if the forehead firmly rests onto it, i.e. it is pressed so hard that it cannot be pressed anymore, Sajdah will be valid, otherwise, not.
Ref: (Tabyin-ul-Haqaaiq, V1, P117)
- These days, the trend of using carpets in Masajid has developed (in some Masajid foam is also spread underneath the carpets). While performing Sajdah on a carpet, make it sure that the forehead firmly rests, otherwise Salah will not be valid. If the nasal bone did not rest on the ground properly, the Salah will be Makruh-e-Tahrimi and it would be Wajib to repeat such a Salah.
Ref: (Mulakhas az Bahar-e-Shariat, Part 3, P71)
- As the forehead does not properly rest on a spring mattress, Salah will not be valid on it. (ibid)
After the Qa’dah-e-Akhirah, deliberately saying Salam, talking or any other such act that finishes the Salah. However, if any other deliberate act except Salam was found, repeating such a Salah will be Wajib, and if any such act was found without intention, the Salah will become invalid.
Ref: (Ghunya-tul-Mustamli, P286)